The Human Soul

National Christian Counselors Association

In 1981, the Arnos established the National Christian Counselors Association (NCCA) as a non-profit corporation in order to conduct extensive research in the development of a therapeutic assessment procedure based upon scripture.  Through more than seven years of systematic research with over 5,000 individuals, Drs. Arno developed a system that, still today, is considered the “gold standard” of client assessments.  This instrument is known as the “Arno Profile System.”

Arno Profile System

The Arno Profile System (APS) is utilized by thousands of Christian leaders, ministers, and professional Christian counselors throughout America and around the world.  It is the preferred instrument for assessing the unique, inborn identity of the individuals we serve.  Over the past forty years since its inception, the APS has consistently been validated to a ninety-five percent accuracy rate in identifying an individual’s inborn, God-given temperament.

The APS does not measure a person’s personality, character, or behavior.  To the contrary, it thoroughly describes a person’s inborn temperament – the unique nature the Creator “knit together in our mother’s womb” (Psalm 139:13-14).  We are not merely a blank slate waiting to be defined, as secular science would claim.  No, we are intentionally, miraculously, and beautifully crafted, distinct from all others.

Personality is a “mask” we put on, specific to each environment we’re in and the people we’ll be interacting with.  Our personality may be starkly different at a birthday party than it would be at a funeral.

Character is the “real” person we’ve learned to be over the course of our lives, known best by those closest to us.

Temperament is the “inborn” nature we were given by God, and very possibly not fully known, even by ourselves.

Consider an old, yellow wooden table.  Its “personality” is yellow.  Its “character” is marred and blemished from years of use.  But its “temperament” is the natural wood underneath the many colors that have been layered upon it over the course of its life.

In contrast to Freud’s suppositions, the person God created each of us to be (our true identity) and the person we have become through life in a fallen world (our learned, false identity) can be considerably different.  This is creatively illustrated in a quote by Albert Einstein: “If you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing it is stupid!”

The APS profile intricately and accurately identifies the inborn nature of the “fish” we were created to be.  Traditional profiles, designed to measure an individual’s personality, simply reveal the outward behavioral and relational characteristics of the fish that is “climbing the tree.”

The Human Soul

The Bible goes to great lengths to make it known that each one of us has been deliberately created by God.  Countless scriptures affirm the truth of creation.  And in the creation narrative, God not only created man and woman, He placed a specific design within each and every one of us.

The apostle Paul, in one of his letters, refers to this amazing design that separates man from all other living creatures:  “May your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus” (I Thessalonians 5:23 NIV).  This affirms that we consist of body, soul, and spirit.  Our material bodies are evident, but our souls and spirits are less distinguishable.

The meaning of the word Paul used for “soul” embodies our mind, will, and emotions.  These three are evident in our personal preferences, choices, and desires, as well as our interactions with other human beings.  The nature of our soul is most authentically reflected through the unique characteristics of our inborn temperament.

The Greek word for “spirit” is pneuma.  It refers to the part of man that connects and communicates with God – much like the wind, very real yet not humanly visible.  It is given to us by God and is the source of life (John 6:63).  Our spirit differs from our soul, in that only through our spirit can we experience the very presence and nature of God.

While everyone’s soul is fully active, not everyone’s spirit is, because when Adam fell to sin, the spirit died and was separated from God.  Only in Christ is the spirit reconnected and reconciled:  “At one time you were separated from God.  But now, by his death, Christ has made you God’s friends again” (Colossians 1:21-22).


Soul health and spiritual maturity cannot be separated.  Our counselors are ordained Christian ministers as well as certified and licensed Christian counselors.  We are able to help you experience freedom from shame, anxiety, depression, or marriage / relationship conflict with methods that are purely Christ-centered.  Please click on this link to learn much more about how our CHRISTIAN COUNSELING an help you become a more authentic follower of Christ, and help you find freedom from identity dependence.

Life Training offers convenient sessions at our office in Louisville, Kentucky, as well as online counseling via Zoom or FaceTime.  Our non-profit counseling practice has an outstanding track record for over a decade helping men and women, individuals and couples who are ready to move beyond anxiety, depression, and conflicts in marriage or other relationships find hope and healing in their lives.  Contact us today at 502-717-5433, or by email at

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